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Free read Õ PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ô Edward Kritzler Edward Kritzler ô 2 Read & download Review Jewish Pirates of the Caribbean: How a Generation of Swashbuckling Jews Carved Out an Empire in the New World in Their Quest for Treasure, Religious Freedom--and Revenge Chapter OneCOLUMBUS AND JAMAICA SCHOSEN PEOPLEMay Santa Gloria Jamaica For nearly a year Columbus had been stranded in Jamaica with a hoard of gold a mutinous crew and a few dozen teenage loyalists some of whom were secret Jews Alone melancholy and confined to his cabin by gout the great explorer wrote his patron ueen Isabella a despairing letter He feared that even if he defeated the mutineers the governor of Santo Domingo who had promised to send a rescue ship wanted him deadSo much had happened since he had been making the rounds of Europe a would be explorer going from king to king seeking royal backing for a promised uick passage west across the Ocean Sea to India and the wealth of the East In at his first meeting with Spain s royal couple King Ferdinand although intrigued by the plan told Columbus the time was not opportune They were in the midst of a war and could not seriously consider such an important matter until peace was restored In parting ueen Isabella counseled patience and awarded Columbus a retainer promising they would meet again when the war was overOn January Columbus entered the royal uarters He had been summoned a few days after Spain s final victory over the Moors at Granada and the ueen had sent him money to buy new clothes and a mule to ride Encouraged by her gift Columbus was confident He had honed his proposal into a detailed presentation with maps and charts from the Jewish astronomer Abraham Zacuto and uotes from the Bible and Greek sages supporting his view that the world was round the oceans not large and Japan lay three thousand miles to the west across the Ocean Sea Prepared for uestions he received noneAfter an unsettling silence Ferdinand spoke Victory over the Moors had emptied the treasury he said Moreover he could not abide Columbus s demand for hereditary rule over lands he might discover The ueen his admirer said nothing The meeting broke up and Columbus left angry and disgusted All this time he had waited for the war to end Now that it had Ferdinand was pleading poverty Pausing briefly in the corridor he informed the king s treasurer that he was leaving for France where Bartholomew his younger brother was arranging an audience with the king If that monarch wasn t interested he would cross the channel to meet with the English king He would not be denied his dream one that as Cervantes wrote of Don uixote He hugged and would not part with even if barefoot friars had begged himBefore Columbus rode past the gates of Santa Fe the royal treasurer Luis de Santangel sought and was granted an audience with ueen Isabella The royal chronicler noted Santangel appeared distressed as if a great misfortune had befallen him personally He had good reason Santangel was a secret Jew and as a member of the royal court he was aware his people were about to be expelled from Spain There were upward of a half million Jews in the country they had called home since the time of Christ Where would they go India China Perhaps the explorer Columbus would discover a new land somewhere Santangel and other secret Jews in the royal service hoped Columbus s voyage would provide an answerThe Inuisition mandated that Jews under penalty of death must either leave or convert to Catholicism Santangel like many others had converted and became a New Christian If discovered Judaizing the converts were liable to be burned at the stake The Santangel family long established in Spain was among the first targets of the Inuisition Luis s cousins had gone up in flames in Saragossa and only the intervention of Ferdinand had prevented Luis from suffering the same fateSantangel addressed the ueen He was astonished he told her to see Her Highness who has always shown such resolute spirit in matters of great conseuence should lack it now for an enterprise of so little risk for so vast a gain He spoke to the ueen of the wealth to be acuired and the great service she would render to God all for the price of a few caravels ships Alluding to Columbus s plan to seek royal backing elsewhere he cautioned Isabella It would be a great damage to Her Crown and a grave reproach to Her Highness if any other prince should undertake what Columbus offered Her Highness If money was a consideration Santangel said he would be glad to finance the fleet himselfA mounted messenger caught up with Columbus as he was crossing the Bridge of the Pines seven miles from Santa Fe and bade him return Later that day with all parties again gathered in the royal uarters the king informed Columbus that the Crown would sponsor his Enterprise of the Indies and meet his demands No mention was made of hereditary title Two months later it was still a stumbling block in his negotiations when an event occurred that made its inclusion mandatoryOn the morning of March Columbus was in his room in Santa Fe overlooking the main suare when the sound of trumpets brought him to his balcony Below the town crier flanked by mounted guards read the expulsion order of the Inuisition Jews had four months to leave After that any caught in Our domains will be punished without trial by death and seizure of property The Jews of Spain had been threatened with expulsion before Rulers since the Visigoths had used this threat to extractmoney from them A period joke compared the Jews to a money box that you break open when you need money But this time it was different The Church was involvedTo the Jews of the royal court who supported Columbus the expulsion order made it essential that Columbus hold out for hereditary rule If no Asian kingdom welcomed Jewish refugees Columbus as the ruler of a new land would be able to provide a haven for Spanish JewsIt is thought that Columbus himself was a descendant of Spanish Jews the Colon family who had converted and moved to Genoa a century before on the heels of the Massacre of Some even contend he was a Cabalist Whatever his genealogy he was in sympathy with the People of the Book and they with him In his early years in Portugal and Spain he lived in a largely Jewish and New Christian world of navigators cartographers as.Review Jewish Pirates of the Caribbean: How a Generation of Swashbuckling Jews Carved Out an Empire in the New World in Their Quest for Treasure, Religious Freedom--and Revenge
Free read Õ PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ô Edward Kritzler Edward Kritzler ô 2 Read & download Review Jewish Pirates of the Caribbean: How a Generation of Swashbuckling Jews Carved Out an Empire in the New World in Their Quest for Treasure, Religious Freedom--and Revenge Tronomers and mathematicians While others looked askance at this wandering sailor and laughed at his dream Iberian Jews and conversos assisted Columbus in developing his Enterprise of the Indies In their learned circles they dealt with a round world Church geography did not apply to themOn April Columbus agreed to the Capitulations of Santa Fe which limited his rights to lifetime rule Two weeks later this ruling was reversed and Columbus was granted hereditary rule No account exists of the final negotiations but it is likely that court Jews facing the forced exile of their people counseled Columbus to hold firm to his demand One imagines a scene in the royal chambers with Santangel persuading the royals that the explorer s demand should not trouble them If his voyage were successful Columbus and his crew of ninety men could not possibly subdue one of the powerful Asian nations On the other hand if he took possession of a few islands along the way the Crown would benefit by having way stations for Spain s trading ships plying the shortcut passage to the wealth of the EastWhether or not such a scene took place Ferdinand finally relented Columbus would sail with his right to rule any new lands he discovered to be enjoyed forever by his heirs and successorsAfter Columbus returned from his successful first voyage he made threetrips across the Western Sea He never reached Asia and didn t live long enough to fulfill his pledge to Santangel and the court Jews to provide a homeland for converted Jews But it would be kept by his family in the new land the Crown did beueath to Columbus s descendants the island of Jamaica How this came about goes back to a promise he made to the teenage conversos who stood by him when he was marooned thereReturning from his fourth voyage to the New World Columbus had been forced to beach his ships in Jamaica after sailing from Panama with a cache of gold objects bartered from the Indians His two ships were leaking badly Columbus hoped to reach Santo Domingo to obtain others to return to Spain But his worm eaten caravels described by his son asfull of holes than a bees honeycomb barely made Jamaica With water rising in their holds he ran them aground and lashed them together in a shallow becalmed bay on the island s north coast a cross bow s shot from land Atop his foredeck he fashioned a palm thatch hut to serve as his cabinIn his first letter to the ueen written soon after he arrived he bragged that he had discovered the source of Solomon s gold in the mines of Panama and claimed to have seengold in a few days there than in all his previous trips His fourteen year old son Fernando brought along as cabin boy later recorded that his father had traded small bells and mirrors for sixty three gold pendants and other gold objects with the Veragua Indians of PanamaThis was his second trip to Jamaica When he had discovered the island in he had named the half moon bay where he was now stranded Santa Gloria for the beauty of its glorious landscape After a year he thought he might never leave Was this where his life was to end Uncertain of his future he wrote his ueen We have been confined months lodged on the decks of our ships My men have mutinied My brother my son and those that are faithful are sick starving and dying Governor Ovando of Santo Domingo has sent to see if I am dead rather than to carry me back alive I conclude Your officers intend my life should terminate hereThe object of his cynicism was the arrival the previous week of a ship from Ovando It had anchored outside the reef in the late afternoon and left before dawn Before sailing away its captain ferried over a side of ham a barrel of wine and a message from the governor that a rescue ship would soon be sentThe governor s message did confirm the safe arrival of Columbus s first mate Diego Mendez who ten months before had set forth in a dugout canoe to carry news of their plight to Santo Domingo But as he wrote the ueen he really believed the ship had been sent to spy on how I might be totally destroyedMade furious by his suspicions Columbus concluded his letter with an angry vow Should he die in Jamaica and his proprietary rights be withdrawn ingratitude will bring down the wrath of Heaven so that the wealth that I have discovered shall be the means of stirring up all mankind to revenge and the Spanish nation shall suffer hereafterFortunately for Columbus Isabella never received his threat Having no way to send this letter Columbus could only call on the good angels that succor the oppressed and innocent to bring this paper to my great mistress Apparently no Heavenly couriers were listening as this little known letter never left the island His earlier letter carried by Mendez had been forwarded to her from Santo DomingoThe mutiny referred to in his despairing missive had broken out five months earlier when Francisco Poras captain of one of the ships burst in on the admiral in his straw cabin and demanded they leave at once He and his brother Diego the fleet s notary accused Columbus of having deliberately marooned them in Jamaica knowing he was unwelcome in Santo Domingo The Poras brothers insurrection was joined by most of the older seamen who after six months in Santa Gloria wanted out Columbus declared he would not leave but rather than battle the mutineers agreed to let them goCrying I am for Castile follow me the rebel leader seized the dozen canoes Columbus had bartered from the Indians Forcing the natives to row the rebels made three attempts to overcome the fierce currents of the mile wide channel to Hispaniola On their final try they gave up though only after throwing eighteen Indian paddlers overboard and chopping off the hands of those who clung to the side Five months later after a two week march across the island marked by rape and pillage they were encamped in an Indian village a half mile from Santa Gloria intending to seize the admiral s shipsColumbus had just finished his troubled letter to the ueen when the two men he had sent to parlay with the rebels returned They had taken an offer of p.
Free read Õ PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ô Edward Kritzler
Free read Õ PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ô Edward Kritzler Edward Kritzler ô 2 Read & download Review Jewish Pirates of the Caribbean: How a Generation of Swashbuckling Jews Carved Out an Empire in the New World in Their Quest for Treasure, Religious Freedom--and Revenge Ardon and a promise that they would soon be rescued But Poras rebuffed themWhen his emissaries reported that Poras s men were preparing for battle Columbus withdrew to his cabin in despair But Bartholomew his fierce younger brother convinced him to take the fight to the enemy He armed the fifty young loyalists and set forth to attack the rebel camp When the mutineers saw Columbus s teenage army approach they laughed There was no way mere youths brought up in a softer mode of life could defeat such hardy sailors rendered robust and vigorous by the roving life But the rebels confidence was premature In a superhuman effort Bartholomew slew the six mutineers sent to attack him and had the point of his sword at Poras s breast when the rest surrendered The Poras brothers were put in irons aboard ship and the forty eight rebels were disarmed and kept on shore With peace restored a reunited mistrustful crew nervously awaited their promised rescueEven if Ovando did send a ship Columbus had little faith his gold medallions would be safe in Hispaniola whose previous governor he wrote the ueen robbed me and my brother of our dearly purchased gold He expected no less from Ovando During the tense five weeks before two rescue ships arrived one sent by Mendez the other by Ovando he rarely left his cabin Never again did he set foot on JamaicaWhat happened to the gold of Veragua The Crown had instructed Columbus that if treasure was found you must draw up an account of all this in the presence of Our Notaryso that We may know everything that the said Islands and Mainland may contain Yet the sixty three medallions from Panama are not mentioned in the notary s account nor are they listed in the inventory of the ship that brought him home to Spain Unsure his gold would survive Ovando s rescue Columbus would not have left the gold in Hispaniola Columbus also had reason to fear a renewed mutiny on the way back to Spain It is therefore unlikely that he kept the gold with himThat leaves Jamaica Since he never left the ship and trusted no one but his son and brother and a core group of loyalists he presumably asked members of this latter group to transfer his gold to safety From the Hardcover editionCompelling An ambitious and expansive history of a mostly unexamined aspect of the Jewish expulsion from Spain and Portugal Los Angeles TimesYo ho ho and a bottle of ManischewitzA giddy breathless dash through the material Jewish pirates arevividly present in our imagination than we might have suspected Jewish Daily Forward Jewish Pirates of the Caribbean is populated by so many remarkable charactersJewish and otherwisethat picking a favorite is taxing San Francisco ChronicleKritzler should be commended for making us rethink a few historical assumptions What s Aarrgh in Yiddish anyway Washington PostA book that turns ones lifelong notions on their ear and makes one rethink history is a find indeed A surprising yet convincing story Enormous fun Santa Cruz Sentinel A far reaching chronicle of an oft forgotten chapter in Jewish history it also encompasses the role of Sephardi Jews in the opening up of the New World Jerusalem ReportFascinating Kritzler exposes a virtually unexplored world in Jewish history Jewish Pirates of the Caribbean is a book that should not just be read but studied as well San Diego Jewish WorldKritzler is a storyteller and the story he tells is about the tangled and colorful Sephardi web that stretched from Fez to Amsterdam to Jamaica Haaretz This is farthan a book about Jewish pirates It is a book about early Jewish Settlement in the New world and it makes for fascinating reading Kritzler illuminates an all but unknown chapter in Jewish history in colorful salty prose History Book ClubRevelatory Kritzler details the story of a small group of Jewish merchants and adventurers who pioneered in the Jamaican pirate trade and helped to create an outpost of religious freedom at the same time A wonderful story never before told Jack Davis author of The Pirates Laffite Jewish Pirates of the Caribbean is a wonderfully informed book of maritime history Edward Kritzler is a splendid guide on a voyage through a dark and fascinating era of Jewish history Jay Neugeboren author of The Stolen Jew Pirate rabbis Warrior Jews Sephardic seafarers escaping the fires of Inuisition in uest of gold and freedom in the New World If like mine your knowledge of Europes fabled Age of Discovery hasnt featured these colorful and as Edward Kritzlers diligent scholarship demonstrates historically influential pioneers then Jewish Pirates of the Caribbean presents a tale as essential as it is entertaining Robert H Patton author of Patriot PiratesWhat a treasure Ed Kritzler has literally dived the depth of the Caribbean to bring us a well documented book on a hitherto forgotten role of Jews and their involvement in a most unusual occupation in the New World Piracy Bernard Diederich author of TrujilloUsing a warm style Kritzler helps us understand why the pirate era occurred and how the Jews fitted into Caribbean history at that time He also brings insights to little understood historical facts such as what really happened to that famous boatload of Jewish refugees that sailed from Recife to New Amsterdam in why Jamaica became a haven for Jewish merchants and how this morphed into its development as a center of the pirate trade as well as the origin of theboucaniers later known as buccaneers Andree Aelion Brooks author of The Woman Who Defied Kings and Out of SpainEd Kritzlers book unlocks the long buried Jewish heritage of many famous pirates and their fascinating long forgotten empire building activities This book is a must read for pirate lovers and history buffs alike Gail Selinger pirate historian and author of The Complete Idiot s Guide to PiratesEveryone is entitled to her own opinions on the matter but no one has given the subject of Jewish pirateslove and attention than Ed Kritzler He is the aficionado of Jewish Pirates Gangway All Aboard Onto the gunwales We re off What wild adventure Rachel Frankel author of Remnant Stones.
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- Jewish Pirates of the Caribbean: How a Generation of Swashbuckling Jews Carved Out an Empire in the New World in Their Quest for Treasure, Religious Freedom--and Revenge
- Edward Kritzler
- 20 August 2020